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March 18, 2007
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F I L M . P H O T O G R A P H Y

The first photograph was an image produced in 1826 by Nicéphore Niépce on a
polished pewter plate covered with a petroleum derivative called bitumen of Judea.
Produced with a camera, this image required an eight-hour exposure in bright sunshine. Niépce later switched from pewter to copper plates and from bitumen to silver chloride. French painter Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre continued Niépce’s pioneering work and in 1839, after Niépce's death, announced an improved version of the process, which he called the daguerreotype.

Early photography in the form of daguerreotypes did not use film at all. Eastman Kodak developed the first flexible photographic film in 1885, which was coated on paper and the first transparent plastic film was produced in 1889. The first photographic film was made from highly flammable nitrocellulose with camphor as a plasticizer (celluloid). Beginning in the 1920s, nitrate film was replaced with cellulose acetate or "safety film".

The Gelatin-silver process was introduced in 1871. This is the photographic process used with currently available black and white films and printing papers.
Almost all black & white photography is now taken on negative film to produce prints. Black and white films can be processed specially to produce slides, but most films contain dyes in the film base that reduce its transparency and may leave a slight color.

Black and white films are, in the main panchromatic, which means that they are equally sensitive to light across the spectrum. Orthochromatic film is sensitive to the blue end of the spectrum, Infrared film it’s a panchromatic film which has sensitivity skewed to the red end of the spectrum.

The first fully practical color film, Autochrome, did not reach the market until 1907. It was based on a screen-plate method, that lets filtered red, green or blue light through each grain to a photographic film in contact with it. Color films are generally sensitive to the whole of the range of visible light, however some films are balanced for specific lighting conditions (daylight film/ tungsten film).

The earliest practical method using a 'subtractive' method was the Kodachrome process, which produced much brighter color transparencies. Kodachrome, Ektachrome, Fujichrome, and Agfachrome are examples of films that produce 35-millimeter slides and larger transparencies. Both daylight and tungsten versions of these films are generally available.

Instant film is a photographic film that is designed to be used in an instant camera. The film pack contains the chemicals needed for developing, and the instant camera automatically initiates the developing process after a photograph has been taken.

[See also POLAROID :New Film: SX70 Blend, POLA-VORITES: Endangered Species & Film, Still Viable?].



BLACK AND WHITE FILM

  my baby growing ... by cweeks  melissa by DanPete
A Past-tense Connection by DreamingInTheTheatre  lisa,the smoker and flying boy by lloydhughes  fly me to the moon by morze
the birdbowl by misspaperclip  N_winter by frida-vl  point of view by strychnina
room III by ThreeLibras    from dust till dawn by gaiakiyarae
talk to winds by wasted-photos  olita by bubble-gum-heart  nastja by wasted-photos



COLOR FILM

Flowers by UnfinishedSympathy  all things tracked by guost  ...dog by frida-vl  
whatnot by optical-flare  threesome by veca  :thumb48248736:
:thumb50190723:  20 reasons to by unda  :thumb42655363:  
:thumb43409928:  :thumb35773590:  :thumb35604974:
By the pond by riotstar  very busy in autumn by strychnina  :thumb41746918:



COLOR REVERSAL / SLIDE FILM

floating on a sea of envy by lloydhughes  with love by bright-white-kite  Boy in gold sweater by photoart1
comptine d.un autre ete by morze  :thumb38759316:  :thumb21699386:
thunderstorms by bright-white-kite  comedownnow,,, but we'll stay by afternoon-tea  
good morning by Santina  Holga 20 by Valimar  :thumb42103772:
mmm. by AnBystrowska  sitting together 1 by lloydhughes  elen by Santina



INSTANT FILM

Polaroid 8 _ Old Sky by oxigenium  l'oiseau. by moumine-polaroid  :thumb45475927:  
summer by prismopola  :thumb43905332:  Still Life with Apricots by intao
golden berries by bluecitrusart    
unpredicted poppy by ashveenp  frangipani by bangia  retroperspective by industrienormal
polaroid - balancing act by mr-amateur  :thumb38832134:  Sandy Feets by l07347967



D A R K R O O M

The darkroom is the workspace where photographers use light-sensitive materials to develop film and paper to make photographic prints. Darkrooms have been used since the late 19th century for black and white photography but due to the complexity of processing colour film, and to the rise, first of Polaroid and later digital photography, darkrooms are decreasing in popularity.

[See also The Golden Mean: Saving Darkroom *concerning deviantART darkroom category].



:thumb42545498:  :thumb41638945:  :thumb43124620:
Ogryzek by tju-tjuu  Earth Times Three by equivoque  Floating Venus by equivoque
still rain fell by HealYourself  Dark sky by Kimbell  just imagine by leia856
First Darkroom Print by ohhhsunshine  023 by twistoffate05  no fire by deim
leave the day free by HealYourself  I duno by blueberrycarrie    Twin Towers, NYC by BaddogLtd



CONTACT PRINTS, SABATTIER & PHOTOGRAMS*

Contact by flizZ  :thumb42057944:  Contact Print 2 by SuperSeniorPS1 contact print by swallowingwords


Katiana by pinkmingo  Karine and I by michellenino   Contrast Sabattier by Hiver71 balcony by Rabbi-Killifish
now-i-no by LovingApathy  Dead Roses Are... Beautiful by GypsyWings  Out of the Village... by GypsyWings


Pos Neg Thistle by graphixaddict photogram 1 by fightingfalcon Photogram 2 by panda-pie photogram 3 by fightingfalcon
Photogram 2 by kngr721  exp2 by YasWaddah  Photogram by Wam

*Photograms are photographic images made without film [or cameras], y placing objects directly onto the surface of a photo-sensitive material such as photographic paper and then exposing it to light.


Ansel Adams once wrote "[…] In my mind’s eye I saw [with reasonable completeness] the final image as made with the red filter. I can still recall the excitement of seeing the visualization 'come true' when I removed the plate from the fixing bath for examination. The desired values were all there in their beautiful negative interpretation. This was one of the most exciting moments of my photographic career."

How will we able to experience that excitement or have the ability to visualize a photograph that’s still not visible to our eyes if films and darkrooms cease to exist?



LINKS OF INTEREST

The Darkroom Project . Instructions for setting up a darkroom in your home.
How to Develop Black and White Film . Black & white film processing: The twelve-step program. By Mason Resnick.
Daguerreotype to Digital . A brief history of the photographic process.
Alternative Processes . Historical photographic methods in use today.
Solarization Demystified . Historical, artistic and technical aspects of the Sabattier Effect. By William L. Jolly.
Zone System . A simplified Zone System. By Norman Koren.
Infrared Photography . Popular myths on Infrared Photography.
PaperCams . Handmade Pinhole Paper Cameras. By Thomas Hudson Reeve.
ILFORD Products | KODAK Professional Films | FUJIFILM Professional Film | FUJIFILM Consumer Film | AGFA Products | Polaroid | Zenit | <a href=www.pictureline.com/category.p…>HOYA Lenses</a> . Cameras, film and paper products.
Photography Timeline . The history of photography, sorted by date.
Why? [ We photograph ] | Thwaap... an ode to the Leica | Seeing . Articles by Chris Weeks.
Analog Photography Users Group . An international community devoted to traditional photographic processes.
Photography Forums . at DevART.



BOOKS

The Camera | The Negative | The Print . By Ansel Adams.
Examples: The Making of 40 Photographs . By Ansel Adams.
Zone System for 35mm Photographers: A Basic Guide to Exposure Control . By Carson Graves.
The Darkroom Cookbook . By Steve Anchell.
Historic Photographic Processes: A Guide to Creating Handmade Photographic Images . By Richard Farber.
The Art of Infrared Photography . By Joseph Paduano.
Photographer's Guide to Polaroid Transfer: Step-By-Step . By Christopher Grey.



DevART RELATED CLUBS :

AnalogPhotographers | film-photography | Film-Negatives | HASSELBLADclub | GoPolaroid | holga | ZenitUsers | toy-camera



  
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:icongustideanzy:
gustideanzy Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2009
cool article
Reply
:iconpramit-dabadi:
pramit-dabadi Featured By Owner Apr 7, 2009
Superb rounding up of all interesting aspects of film photography.The feeling produced by using a film camera can never be produced by a digital.Even though i use digital now,my breakthrough in photography was started with film.The pictures in the article are in a sense godlike in themselves.I really appreciate you putting your time in this subject.
Reply
:iconrozaza:
rozaza Featured By Owner Aug 25, 2008
I LOVE it! :]
Reply
:iconkhpouros:
khpouros Featured By Owner Jun 16, 2008  Hobbyist Photographer
:thumbsup:
Reply
:icontijeras:
tijeras Featured By Owner Mar 26, 2008
Great selection! Every photo has something in it.
Reply
:iconphotopask:
PhotoPask Featured By Owner Aug 10, 2007
Congratulations, great work!
I love it...

Bye, ~PhotoPask
Reply
:iconcantecdedragoste:
cantecdedragoste Featured By Owner Aug 7, 2007
:clap:
Reply
:iconthedeanmachine:
TheDeanMachine Featured By Owner Jun 3, 2007
fantastic selection ! :D
Reply
:iconblindworld:
BlindWorld Featured By Owner Jun 2, 2007  Professional Photographer
I've always had a passion for Film... and I just ordered today a new Nikon FM10:) Im going to go with the black and white film for now.. to get the balancing down and then maybe a little more color.

Great article:clap:
Reply
:iconafternoon-tea:
afternoon-tea Featured By Owner Aug 15, 2007
i have the same camera (:

good luck with your pictures!
Reply
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